Department of History
University of Maiduguri
Maiduguri, Nigeria.

The Jihad movement that was led by Sheikh Usman Dan Fodio in 1804 was a holy war which was aimed at establishing a pure form of Islam. The Nineteenth Century Islam revivalism was aimed at reforming the syncretistic situation which had grown up, and re-establishing Islam as the state religion and mode of government. The Jihad itself and the establishment of the Caliphate had to a great extent impacted on the Nigerian Societies – these impact includes the emergence of towns and cities and expansion of the
existing ones as commercial and administrative centres, thereby contributing to the process of urbanization. Indeed the Sheikh gave fourteen flags to the selected Umarah (leaders) to launch the Jihad in their respective areas and these centres were to become very large and powerful states and some of them are now state capitals. These emirates which were established in Bauchi, Gombe and Adamawa were the first political system in the area. In any case by 1830 the Fulani had extended their overrule to the whole of modern northern Nigeria with the exception of Borno, parts of Kebbi and Gobir and the hilly areas of the Middle Belt.



International Journal of Social and Policy Issues Vol.13 No. 1&2
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