Department of Language and Liberal Studies
Ramat Polytechnic
Maiduguri, Nigeria

Maritime issues have gained international prominence in recent years, fueled by the decline in global fishing catches, the scramble for oil and mineral resources, and states’ desire to lay sovereign claims to their maritime spaces. States are willing to use militarized force to defend their maritime claims, as the United Kingdom-Iceland “Cod Wars”
and militarized confrontations between Greece and Turkey in the Aegean Sea demonstrate. This study evaluates two primary mechanisms for resolving maritime conflicts: 1) the creation of private ownership of maritime zones in the form of Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs), and 2) the creation of an institution, the United Nations Convention on the
Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), to establish standards for maritime claims and resolution of disputes. The study evaluates the effects of the United Nation Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) on peaceful and militarized management of maritime claims in the Western Hemisphere and Europe (1900-2001)
and the long-run effects of privatization and institutionalization on marine fishing stocks (1950-2003). The analyses suggest and declared EEZs work efficiently for helping states to reach agreements over maritime claims in bilateral negotiations, while membership in the United Nation Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) prevents the outbreak of new claims and promotes more frequent third party management efforts. The study find a U-shaped relationship between marine catches and duration of UNCLOS/EEZ commitments, indicating that fish stocks initially decline and then recover positively after the implementation of conservation policies.


International Journal of Environmental Issues Vol.12 No. 1&2
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