DUTSE, NANYI J. I.
ADEOSUN, J. O.
ZAKARIYA, S. I.
Department of Crop Production Technology
Bauchi State College of Agriculture
Sunflower scientifically referred to as Helianthus annuus. Belongs to the family Asteraceae, class dicotlyedonae, and genus Helianthus. Specie annuus. Sunflower is said to have originated from North America in the Fertile Crescent, possibly domesticated by several of the western Native American tribes at about 1900 BC. Sunflower production is now moving westward into the drier regions, with about 85% of North American sunflower seed still being produced in North and South of Dakota and Minnesota. Sunflower is a tall annual and perennial herb.Its leaf is simple, with a single blade; heart shaped with pinnate venation. A mature sunflower is actually a flower head. The outer petal bearing florets are sterile which could be yellow, red, orange or other colours. Sunflower is grown in many semi aid regions of the world. It could be grown in areas with an altitude of 1.5 to 3.5 m. Sunflower could grow in a wide range of soil type, from sandy to clayey soils. Sunflower can be planted with rain establishment, because soil temperatures, moisture requirements, rainfall pattern are of great importance in its production. Harvesting is one of the most important operations in sunflower. Two separate experiments were conducted in the research farm of Bauchi State.
College of Agriculture, Yelwa Bauchi during the 2012 and 2013 rainy seasons. Bauchi is located on longititude 10o 17’ N and latitude 90o 49’ E on an elevation of 609.3m above sea level. Bauchi is located in the northern guinea savannah agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Data height (cm), number of leaves per plant at 4,6 and 8 weeks after germination. While stem girth, number of branches, number of flowers per plant were all noted at 9, 11, 13 and 15 weeks after germination respectively. Also noted were sample of harvested heads per treatment, whole harvested heads, 1000 seed weight(g) and final seed weight (kg/ha). The results as obtained from the effect of organic manure (poultry droppings) on sunflower growth parameters in 2012 cropping season, all through the period of the investigation were non significant. Similarly the effect of organic manure (poultry droppings) on sunflower yield and yield related parameters were non significant all the period of the investigation. As per the results obtained and analysed in 2013 cropping season, showed that organic manure’s (poultry droppings) effect on sunflower growth, yield and yield related parameters as observed, were statistical significant effect (P±0.05) all through the period of the investigation. The positive effect of organic manure (poultry droppings) on both growth, yield and yield related characters in 2013 period of the investigation might be linked to such possible factors as; early sowing, residual nutrient of the previously applied organic manure (2012), early rain establishment, viable seeds; leading to quick, good seed emergence, seedling establishment, and consequently good plant density; subsequently good crop yield. Farmers in the study area interested in the production of the crop with the view to using organic manure (Poultry droppings) as a source of supplementary nutrient to boast crop performance; to endeavour to apply the organic manure well ahead of seed planting, get good and viable seeds, sow their seeds as soon as the rain establishes and ensure that good plant population is obtained for subsequent good growth and final seed yield