H AYAT U D E E N , MOH AMME D
ISMAIL , U SMAN
JO D A , MOH AMMED
Department of Language and Liberal Studies
The world faces economic crisis, population growth, climate change, water scarcity, pollution, food crisis, soil depletion erosion and desertification, urbanization with slum development, rural-urban and international migration, physical and structural violence, gender, race and ethnic discrimination, youth unemployment and increasing loss of ecosystem services. The interaction of these multiple crisis may result in extreme outcomes, especially for the vulnerable people living in risky places, and may reduce human, gender and environmental security. The emergence of the environment as an area of study in international relations theory has challenged many traditional assumptions of the discipline, bringing in new actors, new types of decision-making processes, rules and norms, and offering some potential for transforming the ways global governance is done. Second, this study has provided an analytical framework for understanding why global environmental governance has evolved in the way that it has, and the diverse forms it has taken on; understanding lessons of the past that can help to guide us in the future.